Assyrian Civilization

Assyrian lands referred to the region on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia. The name derived from its original capital; ancient city of Ashur.

The Assyrians rose to power and prosperity around 12th century BC in Mesopotamia which today consists mainly of modern Iraq. Their Empire extended to some regions of modern Turkey and settled in different cities in Anatolia.

Assyrians played a major role in the foundation of the civilization of mankind. After the fall of the Assyrian empire in the 7th century BC, Babylon assumed control in the region until they fell to the Persians in the 6th century BC. By then the Assyrians were reduced to a small nation living at the mercy of their overlords in the vastly scattered lands in the Middle Eastern region and finally invaded by the Hurrians.

Assyrians were a Semitic people. They were mainly involved in farming, mining and forestry, with the largest standing army in the Middle East. They had two languages during their times: ancient Assyrian (known as Akkadian), and Modern Assyrian (or neo-syriac). Originally they spoke Akkadian before the easier to use Aramaic language became more popular. They were advanced in science and mathematics and developed medical science.

The Assyrian Kings List

Early Period

I) Kings who lived in tents
Name Ruled Remarks
Zariqum beginning of the Assyrian independence
Puzur-Ashur I
Ilu-Shuma raids into southern Mesopotamia
Erishum I
II) During Akkadian Domination
Name Ruled Remarks
Sargon I 2334-2279 united Mesopotamia (Sumer & Akkad)
Rimush 2278-2270 conquers Elam and Marhashi (central Iran)
Manishtushu 2269-2255 renovates Temple of Ishtar
Naram-Sin 2254-2218 arrogates god-like status to himself
Shar-Kali-Shari 2217-2193 Akkadian kingship begins to weaken
Igigi 2192
Elul-Dan 2190
Dudu 2189-2169
Shu-Turul 2168-2154 Akkadian empire collapses
III) Neo-Sumerian Domination
Name Ruled Remarks
Ur-Nammu 2112-2095 establishes the Third Dynasty of Ur
Shulgi 2094-2047 extends father's empire to all of Assyria
Amar-Sin 2046-2038
Shu-Sin 2037-2029
Ibbi-Sin 2028-2004 Amorites weaken Sumerian power
IV) Assyrian kings during the Akkadian Domination
Name Ruled Remarks
Ushpiya may have succeeded allowed king Azarah
Apiashal Ushpiya & Apiashal are also considered tent kings
V) Kings who were ancestors
Name Ruled Remarks
Hale Chief of an Amorite tribe
VI) Historic Period (written history)
Name Ruled Remarks
Erishum II 1920-1900
Shamshi-Adad I 1813-1781 unites all independent Assyrian city-states
Ishme-Dagan I 1780-1741 contemporary with Hammurabi of Babylon
5 unknown rulers
Several minor rulers
Erishum III
Shamshi-Adad II
Ishme-Dagan II
Shamshi-Adad III
Ashur-Nirari I
Puzur-Ashur III 1520
Enlil-Nasir I
Ashur-Nirari II
Ashur-Bel-Nisheshu 1417-1409
Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe II
Eriba-Adad I

Middle Period

Name Ruled Remarks
Ashur-Uballit I 1363-1328 gains Assyrian Independence from Mittani
Enlil-Nirari 1327-1318
Arik-Den-Ili 1317-1306
Adad-Nirari I 1305-1274 Mittani falls to Assyria
Shalmaneser I 1273-1244 Urartu falls to Assyria
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1243-1207 sacked Babylon, killed by his own son
Ashur-Nadin-Apli 1206-1203 Assyrian power is weakened
Ashur-Nirari III 1202-1197
Enlil-Kudurri-Usur 1196-1191
Ninurta-Apal-Ekur 1191-1179
Ashur-Dan I 1178-1133 Elam captures Babylonia
Ashur-Resha-Ishi I 1132-1115 Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon captures Elam
Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur 1115-1114
Mutakkil-Nusku 1115-1114
Tiglath-Pileser I 1114-1076 in defending Assyria, defeats Nebuchadnezzar
Asharid-Pal-Ekur II limited to Nineveh, Irbil, & Ashur province
Ashur-Bel-Kala 1076-1057
4 Unknown Rulers
Shamshi-Adad IV 1053-1049
5 unknown rulers 39 years period
Ashur-Rabi II 1010-970 Isreal & Judah under David & Solomon
Ashur-Resh-Ishi II 969-967
Tiglath-Pilasar II 966-935
Ashur-Dan II 934-912

Late Period

Name Ruled Remarks
Adad-Nirari II 911-891 captures Babylonia, Anatolia, & Syrian plain
Tukulti-Ninurta II 890-884 peace with Babylon, no tributes required
Ashurnasirpal II 883-859 Assyrian empire reaches Mediterranean Sea
Shalmaneser III 858-824 defeats Arameans, captures Babylon & Persia
Shamshi-Adad V 823-811
Shamiram 811-806 ruler of Assyria while her son was a minor
Adad-Nirari III 806-783 Assyrian rule weakens
Shalmaneser IV 782-773
Ashur-Dan III 772-755 rebellions against Assyria
Ashur-Nirari V 754-745
Tiglath-Pileser III 744-727 re-gains Assyrian might greater than before
Shalmaneser V 726-722 captures Samaria, deports Isrealites
Sargon II 721-705 captures Egypt, Urartu, Babylon; dies in a battle
Sennacherib 704-681 fought rebellions, destroyed Babylon
Esarhaddon 680-669 rebuilt Babylon, defeats Scyth, Cimm, & Egypt
Ashurbanipal 668-627 defeats Egypt, Lydia, & Elam
Ashur-Etel-Ilani 627-624 Babylonians attack Assyria
Sin-Shar-Ishkun 623-612 Medes sack Nineveh
Ashur-Uballit II 612-? flees to Harran, supported by Egyptians