All About Turkey

Turkish States in History

Turks have a long background dating back to the 3rd millennia BC, when they lived as nomads in the great Chinese steppes and on the Mongolian highlands. But first historical written references to the Turks appear in Chinese records of about 200 BC, when Turks liberated themselves from the Chinese autonomy and moved towards west to establish their own Empires and States mainly within the intersection of 3 continents; Asia, Europe and Africa. Their economy was based on shepherding and stockbreeding, especially sheep and horse, latter having a great importance in the Turkish social and cultural life. With the contact of Arabs around 9th century AD, Turks started to become Muslims in large groups especially in the 10th century AD. Totemism and Shamanism were the main religions of Turks before Islam.

There were 16 Turkish States in the history, before the foundation of Republic of Turkey. The rulers of these States were called mainly as Tarkan, Tanhu, Kagan (Kaan), Han (Khan), Yangu, Bey, Shah, Sultan, and so on. Generally the eldest son was appointed as the crown prince. In case the crown princes were at a very young age, than their uncles were enthroned until they grow up. The capital city of the ruler was called as "Ordu".

 

Great Hun Empire (204 BC - 216 AD) Great Huns

Buyuk Hun Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: METE HAN

Territory: Siberia to the North, Tibet and Kashmir to the south, Pacific Ocean to the east, and Caspian Sea to the west (approximately 18 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Yabgu Teoman - Karahan (Tou-Man Tovman) (? - 209 BC)
  • Mete Bagatir (209 - 174 BC)
  • Lao - Shang (174 - 161 BC)
  • Chun - Chen Yabgu (Kun) (161 - 126 BC)
  • I-Chin-Hsien (Icihise) Yabgu (126 - 114 BC)
  • Wu-Weri (Uvey) Yabgu (114 - 105 BC)
  • Wu-Shih-Lu-Erh (U-Su-Liu-Usilu) Yabgu (105 - 102 BC)
  • Chu-Li-Hu (Hiu-Li-Hu-Guylihu) Yabgu (102 - 101 BC)
  • Chu-Ti-Hu (Tsie-Ti-Heu-Tsuydiheu) Yabgu (101 - 96 BC)
  • Hu-Lu-Ku-(Hu-Lo-Ku = Hulugu) Yabgu (96 - 85 BC)
  • Khuandi Yabgu (85 - 68 BC)
  • Khuyluy Yabgu (68 - 60 BC)
  • Uven-Guydi Yabgu (60 - 58 BC)
  • Khukhasie Yabgu (58 - 56 BC)
  • Chichi Yabgu (56 - 36 BC)
  • Joti Yabgu (31 - 20 BC)
  • Seuse - Joti Yabgu (20 - 12 BC)
  • Cheya - Joti Yabgu (12 - 8 BC)
  • Uchjolu - Joti Yabgu (8 BC - 13 AD)
  • Uluyjoti Yabgu (13 - 18 AD)
  • Shikao-Joti Yabgu (18 - 46)
  • Vutatiho Yabgu (46)
  • Panu Yabgu (46 - 83)
  • Sanmuldutzu Yabgu (83 - 84)
  • Yuliu Yabgu (84 - 89)
  • Yuchukien Yabgu (89 - 93)
  • Ankuo Yabgu (93 - 94)
  • Tingtoshi - Suyheuti Yabgu (94 - 98)
  • Vanshichi - Suyti Yabgu (98 - 124)
  • Vuchihu - Shihcho Yabgu (124 - 127)
  • Tejoshi - Suytsieu Yabgu (127 - 140)
  • Chenieu Yabgu (140 - 143)
  • Hulanjoshi Suytsieu Yabgu (143 - 147)
  • Ilingshi - Suytsieu Yabgu (147 - 172)
  • Totejoshi - Suytsieu Yabgu (172 - 177)
  • Huching Yabgu (177 - 179)
  • Kiangkiu Yabgu (179 - 188)
  • Techishi - Suyheu Yabgu (188 - 195)
  • Huchutsiuen Yabgu (195 - 216)

 

Western Hun Empire (48 - 216 AD) Western Huns

Bati Hun Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: PANU

Territory: Western Turkistan provinces

Emperors:

  • Unknown

 

European Hun Empire (375 - 469 AD) European Huns

Avrupa Hun Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: OKTAR

Territory: Southern Russia, Romania, northern ex-Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, ex-Czechoslovakia, Southern and mid-Germany. Basically stretching from eastern France to Ural mountains, and from northern Hungary to Byzantine lands (approximately 4 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Balamir (375 - 395)
  • Karaton(395 - 415)
  • Muncuk (415 - 425)
  • Oktar (425 - 430)
  • Ruga (430 - 434)
  • Bleda (434 - 445)
  • Attila (445 - 453)
  • Ilek (453 - 454)

 

Ak (White) Hun Empire (420 - 552 AD) Ak Huns

Ak Hun Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: AKSHUVAR (AKSUNGUR)

Territory: half of northern India, Afghanistan, a part of Turkistan (approximately 3.5 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Toraman Akhsunvar (420 - 470)
  • Toraman (496 - 502)
  • Mihirakula (502 - 530)
  • Un-identified between 530 - 567

 

Gokturk Empire (552 - 745 AD) Gokturks

Gokturk Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: BUMIN KAGAN

Territory: Altai (Ergenekon) valleys, mainly stretching between Pacific Ocean and Black Sea (approximately 18 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Bumin Kagan (552 - 553)
  • Istemi Kagan (553 - 576)
  • Tapar Kagan (576 - 581)
  • Baga Ishbara Kagan (581 - 587)
  • Chur-Baga Kagan (587 - 588)
  • Tunga Turan Kagan (588 - 600)
  • Bilge Tardu Kagan (600 - 603)
  • Kimin Ture Kagan (603 - 609)
  • Shibi Kagan (609 - 619)
  • Chulluk Kagan (619 - 621)
  • Kara Kagan (621 - 630)
  • Shirbe Kagan (630 - 646)
  • Chibi Kagan (646 - 647)
  • Ipi Tulu Kagan (647 - 653)
  • Chenku-Yabgu (653 - 659)
  • Echine Turche Kagan (659 - 679)
  • Echine Kur Pur Chur Kagan (679 - 682)
  • Ilterish Kutlug Kagan (682 - 693)
  • Kapagan Kagan (693 - 716)
  • Bilge Kagan (716 - 734)
  • Ichen Bilge Kagan (734 - 739)
  • Bilge Kutlug Kagan (739 - 741)
  • Penge Kagan (741 - 742)
  • Suyen Kagan (742)
  • Uzmush Kagan (742 - 744)
  • Peymen Kagan (744 - 745)

 

Avar Empire (565 - 835 AD) Avars

Avar Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: BAYAN KAGAN

Territory: between Volga and Hungary, Southern Russia and Eflak Bogdan area

Emperors:

  • Bayan Kagan (565 - 602)
  • Un-identified between 602 - 791
  • Tudun I (791 - 803)
  • Zodan (803 - 805)
  • Thedorus (805 - ?)
  • Abraham (? - ?)
  • Tudun II (? - 835)

 

Khazar (Caspian) Empire (651 - 983 AD) Hazars

Hazar Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: Unknown, but its greatest ruler was HAKAN YUSUF

Territory: between Crimea, Caucasia, Dinyeper, Don, Volga areas

Emperors:

  • Unknown

 

Uygur State (745 - 1368 AD) Uygurs

Uygur Devleti in Turkish

Founder: KUTLUG BILGE KUL KAGAN

Territory: Central Asia and northern Mongolia

Emperors:

  • Kutlug Bilge Kul-Kagan (745 - 746)
  • Il-Etmish Bilge Bayinchur (Moyunchur) Kagan (746 - 759)
  • Il-Tutmush Alp Kulug Bilge Kagan (759 - 780)
  • Alp-Kutlug Bilge Kagan (780 - 789)
  • Taras Kulug Bilge Kagan (789 - 790)
  • Ochur Kutlug Bilge Kagan (790 - 795)
  • Alp-Ulug Kutlug Bilge Kagan (795 - 805)
  • Kut-Bulmush in Ay-Tengri
  • Kut Bulmush Kuchlug Bilge Kagan in Tengri
  • Alp-Kulug Bilge Kagan
  • Uge Kagan (839 - 845)
  • Bilge Bayinchur (Moyunchur II) Kadir Han (845 - 885)
  • Tafgach Ogulchak Kadir Han (885 - 940)
  • Un-identified rulers

 

Karahanli State (940 - 1040 AD) Karahanlis

Karahanlilar in Turkish

Founder: SATUK BUGRA HAN

Territory: between Aral lake to Mongolia

Emperors:

  • Satuk Bugra Abdulkerim Han (940 - 955)
  • Baytash Musa Han (955 - ?)
  • Ali Han (? - 998)
  • Ahmed Han I (998 - 1017)
  • Mansur Han (1017 - 1024)
  • Ahmed Han II (1024 - 1026)
  • Yusuf Han (1026 - 1032)
  • Suleyman Han (1032 - 1040)

 

Gazneli Sultanate (962 - 1183 AD) Gaznelis

Gazneliler in Turkish

Founder: ALP TEKIN

Territory: stretching between Maveraunnehir to Ganja, and from Caspian shores to Pamir highlands (approximately 4.7 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Alp Tekin (Tigin) (962)
  • Ebu - Ishak Ibrahim (963 - 966)
  • Bilge Tekin (966 - 972)
  • Piri Tekin (972 - 977)
  • Sebuk Tekin (977 - 997)
  • Ismail (997 - 998)
  • Gazneli Mahmud (998 - 1030)
  • Celalu'd - Devle & Cemalu'l-Ebu-Ahmed Muhammed (? - 1041)
  • Sultan Mes'ud I (1030 - 1040)
  • Sultan Mevlud (1040 - 1048)
  • Sultan Mes'ud II (1048 - 1049)
  • Sultan Ali (1049 - 1051)
  • Sultan Abdurreshid (1051 - 1052)
  • Sultan Tugrul (Mutegallibe) (1052 - 1053)
  • Sultan Ferk-Zad (1053 - 1059)
  • Sultan Ibrahim (1059 - 1099)
  • Sultan Mes'ud III (1099 - 1115)
  • Sultan Shir-Zad (1115 - 1116)
  • Sultan Arslan-Shah (1116 - 1117)
  • Sultan Behram-Shah (1117 - 1152)
  • Sultan Husrev-Shah (1152 - 1160)
  • Sultan Husrev-Melik (Melik Shah) (1160 - 1187)

 

Greater Seljuk Empire (1040 - 1157 AD) Great Seljuks

Buyuk Selcuk Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: SELCUK BEY

Territory: Balkash to the east, Aegean & Mediterranean shores to the west, Aral Lake, Caspian Sea and Caucasia to the north, Amman Sea to the south including Arabia (approximately 10 million sq kilometers). Please click here for more information.

Emperors:

  • Tugrul Bey (1040 - 1063)
  • Sultan Alp Arslan (1063 - 1072)
  • Sultan Melik Shah I (1072 - 1092)
  • Sultan Mahmud (1092 - 1093)
  • Sultan Rukneddin Beryaruk (1093 - 1104)
  • Sultan Melik Shah II (1104 - 1105)
  • Sultan Mehmed Tapar (1105 - 1118)
  • Sultan Mu'izzeddin Sancar (1118 - 1157)

 

Kharzem Shah State (1097 - 1231 AD) Harzemsahs

Harzemsahlar in Turkish

Founder: K. MUHAMMED HARZEMSAH

Territory: Area between Iran, southern Caucasia, Dagestan, Amman Sea, Afghanistan, Maveraunnehir, Harzem, Balkash and Aral Lake (approximately 5 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • K. Muhammed Harzemshah (1097 - 1128)
  • Un-named Harzemshah (1128 - 1156)
  • Il-Arslan Harzemshah (1116 - 1172)
  • Alaeddin Tekish Harzemshah (1172 - 1200)
  • Aleddin Muhammed Harzemshah (1200 - 1220)
  • Celaleddin Harzemshah (1220 - 1231)

 

The Golden Horde (1236 - 1502 AD) Altinordus

Altinordu Devleti in Turkish

Founder: BATUR (BATU) HAN

Territory: Eastern Europe, Idyll (Volga) area, and area between western Urals and northern Volga

Emperors:

  • Cuci-Han (1223-1227)
  • Batu (Batur) (1227-1256)
  • Sartak Han (1256-1257)
  • Olakci Han (1257)
  • Berke Han (1257-1266)
  • Mengu - Timur Han (1266-1280)
  • Tuda - Mengu Han (1280 -1287)
  • Tula - Buga Han (1287-1290)
  • Tokta Han(1290-1312)
  • Ozbek Han (1312-1341)
  • Tini Bek Han (1341)
  • Cani - Bek Han I (1341-1357)
  • Berdi - Bek Han (1357- 1360)
  • Kulpa Han (1360)
  • Nevruz - Bek Han (1360-1361)
  • Hizir Han (1361)
  • Timur - Hoca Han (1361)
  • Avdul Han (1361-1362)
  • Kildi - Bek Han (1362)
  • Murut Han (1362-1363)
  • Aziz Han (1363-1367)
  • Cani Bek Han II (1367)
  • Pulad - Demir Han (1367)
  • Bulak Han (1367-1370)
  • Tulun - Bek Hanim (1370-1372)
  • Ilban Han (1372-1374)
  • Ala Hoca Han (1374)
  • Urus Han (1374-1376)
  • Timur - Melik Han (1376-1377)
  • Toktamish Han (1377-1395)
  • Timur- Kutlug Han (1395-1400)
  • Sadi - Bek Han (1400-1408)
  • Pulad Han (1408-1410)
  • Timur Han (1410-1411)
  • Celaleddin Han (1411-1412)
  • Kerim - Berdi Han (1412-1417)
  • Kepek Han (1414-1415)
  • Kaadir - Berdi Han (1415-1416)
  • Cebbar - Berdi Han (1416-1419)
  • Ulug - Muhammed Han (1419-1435)
  • Seyid - Ahmed Han I (1435-1465)
  • Seyyid - Ahmed Han II (1465 - 1481)
  • Seyyid - Ahmed Han III (1481)
  • Mutuza Han (1481 - 1499)
  • Seyh - Ahmed Han (1499 - 1502)

 

Greater Timur Empire (1368 - 1501 AD) Great Timurs

Buyuk Timur Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: TIMUR GURKAN

Territory: Balkans in the west, Volga shores in the north, Indian Ocean in the south, Central Asia in the east

Emperors:

  • Timur Gurkan (Kuregen) (1368 - 1405)
  • Sultan Halil (1405 - 1409)
  • Sultan Shahruh (1409 - 1447)
  • Sultan Ulug - Beg (1447 - 1449)
  • Sultan Abdullatif (1449 - 1450)
  • Sultan Abdullah (1450 - 1451)
  • Sultan Ebu - Said (1451 - 1469)
  • Sultan Ahmed (1469 - 1494)
  • Sultan Mahmud (1494 - 1495)
  • Sultan Baysungur (1495 - 1497)
  • Sultan Babur (1497 - 1498)
  • Sultan Ali (1498 - 1500)

 

Babur Empire (1526 - 1858 AD) Baburs

Babur Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: BABUR SAH

Territory: India and Afghanistan (approximately 2.7 million sq kilometers)

Emperors:

  • Babur Shah (1483 - 1530)
  • Nasireddin Muhammed Humayun Shah (1530 - 1540)
  • Ekber Mirza Shah (1556 - 1605)
  • Cihangir Shah (1605 - 1627)
  • Shah-i Cihan I (1627 - 1658)
  • Alemgir Shah I (1658 - 1707)
  • Bahadir Shah I (1707 - 1712)
  • Cihahgir Shah (1712 - 1713)
  • Ferruh - Siyer Shah (1713 - 1719)
  • Refiudderecat Shah (1719)
  • Shah-i Cihan II (1719)
  • Muhammed Shah (1719 - 1748)
  • Ahmet Shah (1748 - 1754)
  • Alemgir Shah II (1754 - 1759)
  • Shah-I Alem (1759 - 1806)
  • Ekber Shah (1806 - 1837)
  • Bahadir Shah II (1837 - 1858)

 

Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923 AD) Ottomans

Osmanli Imparatorlugu in Turkish

Founder: OSMAN BEY

Territory: Please click here for more information (approximately 20 million sq kilometers)

Emperors: Please click here for more information

 

Republic of Turkey (1923 - today) Republic of Turkey

Turkiye Cumhuriyeti in Turkish

Founder: MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK

Territory: Please click here for more information (approximately 780 thousand sq kilometers)

Government: Please click here for more information

 

Others

In the modern world today, there are other Turkic originated countries apart from Turkey: Azerbaijan, Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.

Beside these independent countries we can also count autonomous Turkic States: Republic of Nahchevan, Republic of Tuva, Republic of Tataristan, North Osetya (Alanya) Federal Republic, Crimean Autonomous Republic Tatar Autonomous Administration, Adige Federal Republic, Altai Republic, Bashkiria Federal Republic, Saha (Yakutistan) Federal Republic, Karakalpak Turks and Karakalpakistan, Karacay-Circassian Republic, Kabardey-Balkar (Malkar) Republic, Sincan/Uighur Autonomous Region (Eastern Turkistan), Republic of Chechnya, Chuvashistan, Dagestan Republic, Gagavuz (Gokoguz), Hakas People and Hakasia (Hakas Republic), and Hakas Federal Republic.

And finally, as some of the Turkish Communities around the world we can point: Western Thrace Turks, Bulgaria Turks, Kosovo Turks, Macedonian Turks, Afghanistan Turks, Ahiska Turks, Derbent Turkmens, Khazar and Karay people, Turks living in Idyll-Ural Region, Caucasus Turkmens, Kaskay Turks, Sanjak Turks, Kumuk Turks, Meluncan People, Turks in Mongolia, Oryat People (Altai Turks), Nogay Turks, Turks living in Romania, Turks living in Iraq, Iranian Turks, and Turks living in Syria. They all share the same roots of Turks.

 

Source: Presidency of Republic of Turkey

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