The Çesme Peninsula, lapped by the waters of the Aegean Sea, lies west of Izmir, in Turkey's Aegean region. Çesme, meaning fountain, derives from the many sources of water found in the area. It is one of Turkey's most beautiful stretches, surrounded by clear blue seas, with landscapes of cultivated fields of aniseed, sesame and artichokes dotted with fig and gum trees. In the un-spoilt bays you can swim in absolute peace. Visitors will find excellent holiday accommodations, restaurants and sports and entertainment facilities. It is possible also to get to Greek island Chios (Sakiz) with regular daily ferries. Çesme has an international harbor linked to Izmir with a superb highway (80 kms - 50mi).
Çesme was captured from the Byzantines by a Seljuk Turkish force under Çaka Bey in the 11th century. With the decline of the Seljuks in the 13th century it became part of the Aydinogullari principality, which used Çesme as a naval base. The Ottoman sultan Yildirim Bayezit (1389-1402) captured Çesme, but after this ruler’s defeat at the hands of Timur the town was returned to the Aydinogullari, finally being recaptured by Bayezit’s son Mehmed I (1413-1421).
A 14th century Genoese fortress, restored and enlarged by the Ottomans in the 16th century, dominates the small port of Çesme and now houses a weapons museum. Today, the town is a popular holiday resort with good accommodations and restaurants. The 16th century caravanserai near the fortress, Öküz Mehmet Pasa Kervansaray, built by Süleyman the Magnificent, has been converted into a hotel. It's a a solid stone building in good repair whose central courtyard is cool even in the hottest weather. Before the rise of Izmir, Çesme was the region’s major port, and this caravanserai marked the end of the Silk road for the caravans who plodded their weary way across Anatolia from Central Asia and the Middle East. Here the goods were unloaded from the camels for export to Europe by ship through the Aegean and Mediterranean. The Church of Agios Haralambos has been restored as an art gallery. Thermal baths offer a health centered escape from modern life. At night a lively, fun atmosphere pervades, especially in the restaurants, cafes, bars and discos along the promenade. Yachts can be hired to explore the peninsula's splendid coastline. Çesme hosts an annual International Song Contest in July, one of the most important festivals in Turkey. Çesme is also famous for its mastic flavored ice-cream and mouth watering toasted sandwiches. Above all it is Çesme's beaches, the longest on the Aegean coast, and turquoise sea which bring holidaymakers back here again and again.
The very popular holiday center of Ilica boasts an excellent white sand beach and the outstanding facilities of the Altin Yunus Marina and Holiday Complex. The bay here is ideal for water sports, especially windsurfing and sailing; there is even an International Windsurfing Race held every year in Çesme and Alaçati, apart from Bodrum. The thermal baths around Ilica are very popular; the best being located on Sifne Bay. In 146 AD the Greek geographer Pausanius described these mineral springs as the ‘sea springs’ and claimed that their therapeutic effects were superior to any other spa in Ionia. They relieve rheumatism, inflammation of the joints, partial paralysis, digestive complaints, and infections of the spine marrow. Pasa Limani has a camp site which offers campers comfortable facilities. Every July on Ilica Bay, the colorful International Çakabey Optimist Yacht race is held.
Ildiri, a quiet seaside village 20 km. northeast of Çesme, was ancient Erythrai which emerges on the stage of history in 3000 BC. Excavations here have shown that the site has been settled since the early bronze age, and as a result the area around the village of Ildiri has been declared a national heritage site. The walls around the ancient city are still standing, and Hellenistic period floor mosaics of exceptional beauty can still be seen in one of the buildings. Excavations have also revealed a temple of Athena. Statues, jewelry and other finds from the city are exhibited in Izmir Museum. Those who climb up to the Acropolis at dusk are rewarded with beautiful views as the sun sinks over the bay and islands.
Tourist are attracted by Çiftlik's many accommodations and by a long, sandy beach (Pirlanta Plaj) just outside of town to the southwest. Camping facilities are available to the south and nearby stretches one of the area's best beaches, the Altinkum Plaj (Golden Beach).
Windmills, some of which have been converted into attractive restaurants, dot the hill above Alaçati, a delightful and typical Aegean town. Alaçati lies to the south inland from Ilica and the coast; a couple of kilometers to the south is a good beach. Many lovely bays, accessible only by yacht, stretch along the coast southeast of the town and ensure peaceful and relaxing anchorages in this popular sailing region. The sea at Alaçati has ideal conditions for windsurfing since it is exposed to high winds. There is a windsurfing school on the quay here which holds courses for beginners. Çark Beach is a favorite with families with young children because the sea is shallow.
Known in ancient times as Clazomenae, Urla Iskelesi offers a marina as well as plentiful accommodations in all price ranges. Restaurants on the top of Güvendik hill afford a marvelous view of the bay and its islands.
As you drive along the panoramic Karaburun peninsula coast road, you pass several peaceful bays and quaint fishing villages, Balikliova, Mordogan and Karaburun. At Karaburun, pleasant hotels, tea gardens and fish restaurants sit between the beautiful mountain backdrop and the clear, clean water. From Manastir Mountain you can enjoy an unforgettable view of the Karaburun coast, the Foça coastline opposite and the entrance of the Gulf of Izmir. If you are lucky, you can spot Mediterranean Seals swimming in the water.
Gümüldür has good tourist facilities, beautiful beaches, restaurants and hotels. Nearby at Ahmetbeyli (Claros) to the east, stand the Apollon Temple and the remains of the colossal statue of Apollo; here you can also enjoy a good fish meal, try Turkish food or a swim at the town's wide beach. A winding panoramic coastal road leads from Ahmetbeyli south to Pamucak beach near Kusadasi.
On the southern side of the Çesme peninsula near the town of Seferihisar is the small picturesque marina of Sigacik. This important yachting center is surrounded by fortifications dating from the Genoese period and is a good point from which to visit the Temple of Dionysus at the antique site of Teos as well as the lovely Akkum beach.